FITNESSPEDIA F6 & F7

Factors

Factor No.6- Supply of Sufficient Amounts of Carbohydrates, Protein and Fat

Without an adequate diet, all this training will be in vain. I am not going to discuss eating plans, food tables, etc. here. That will be for you to decide. I am going to present a couple of formulas that have worked for me, have proved to be effective in sports medicine textbooks too and have worked for other athletes I have trained. Determining Your Daily Energy Intake (DEI), Also Referred to as Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) DEI in athletes is normally based on their usual level of activity and their body mass. The reference range is presented in kcal/kg of body weight. An effective formula that has worked for me for many years is presented below:
kg/bodyweight x 33 (coefficient) + 60 minutes of training activity + 500 – 700 kcal, required for overcompensation (muscle mass gains).
Example: 100 kg of body weight x 33 = 3300 kcal 60 min. training – 800 kcal 4100 kcal

We have 4100 kcal at 100 kg of body weight and 1 hour of strength training which will be sufficient for us to maintain our weight. In order to supply macronutrients and kilocalories to build muscle mass, we need to add 500 – 700 kcal to the 4100 kcal above:

4100 kcal + 500 kcal, required for muscle mass gains

The result is 4600 kcal. How should these be distributed? In percentages: 60% carbohydrates, 20 – 25% protein and 15 – 20% fat. An important note: these kcal and macronutrient percentage values apply to an athlete with a fast metabolism.

How many grams of fat, carbohydrates, and protein would it take to achieve these percentages?

We know carbohydrates and protein supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, while fat supplies 9 kcal per gram. Keeping that in mind, we arrive at the following numbers for 4700 kcal:
60% carbohydrates = 2760 kcal: 4 kcal/gram = 690 grams of carbohydrates
20 – 25% protein = 920 – 1150 kcal: 4 kcal/gram = 230 – 288 grams
15 – 20% fat = 690 – 920 kcal: 9 kcal/gram = 77 – 102 grams.

There are three types of metabolism, broadly speaking: fast; normal;

The coefficient I am using in this case, namely, 33, can vary for different types of metabolism. Here I have used it as an example of a fast metabolism. For normal metabolism, the coefficient will be lower, for example, 28, respectively 23 for slow metabolism.

How fast your metabolism depends on gender, level of physical activity, age, diet, meal frequency, hormonal profile, etc.

Another example – with normal metabolism:
90 kg of bodyweight x 28 (coefficient) = 2520
+ 60 min. training: approximately 500 kcal
+ 500 kcal for overcompensation
We get: 2520 + 500 + 500 = 3520 kcal

3520 is what is required for an athlete with normal metabolism and 90 kg body weight in order to gain muscle mass, provided that he trains 1 hour a day and does not engage in any further physical activity.

Macronutrient percentages also vary in different types of metabolism, namely:
50 – 55% carbohydrates: 20 – 25% protein: 20% fat for normal metabolism
50% carbohydrates: 25 – 30% protein: 20 – 25% fat for slow metabolism

The energy expenditure value for training is taken from sports medicine textbooks for the respective sport, in this case, bodybuilding.

1 hour of training: 500 – 1000 kcal depending on your body weight

Energy expenditure in athletic activities depends on the type of sport and is determined by a coefficient that consists of kcal/kg/h. It is lowest in table tennis – 4.1 kcal/kg/h and baseball – 4.5 kcal/kg/h, and highest in cross-country skiing and rowing – 10.6 kcal/kg/h.

Bodybuilding has a coefficient of 6 – 7.6 kcal/kg/h depending on the intensity of the workout.

Macronutrients

Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates

55 – 65% of your protein intake should come from animal sources and the rest – from plant sources.

Fat should be distributed, as follows: 50% animal fats, 50% vegetable fats, with 10 – 20% of the latter coming from unsaturated fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid, also known as vitamin F and found mainly in nuts and their analogous kinds of butter. Omega 3 – 6 – 9 fatty acids, which are found in fish (predominantly saltwater fish), are another excellent source of fat.

Carbohydrates should be distributed, as follows: 65 – 70% polysaccharides, 25 – 30% mono- and disaccharides and about 5% indigestible carbohydrates (cellulose, pectin).

Micronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals

When it comes to athletes (and not only), the recommended dietary allowance – RDA, developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), is actually a ridiculous and absolutely insufficient part of the amounts of vitamins and minerals that a highly advanced athlete should be getting. In fact, these dosages also represent the minimal amount for a normal person and not the optimal intake.

I am going to discuss the various intakes of micronutrients in athletes according to the sports medicine textbooks:

Vitamin C: recommended by WHO in a dosage of 60 mg/day, in athletes the daily needs are 5 – 9 times higher, i.e. 300 – 500 mg/day and as high as 1000 – 1500 mg/day in case of very high-intensity training. Doses above 2 g/day are not recommended.

Vitamin B1 – according to WHO: 1.5 – 2.5 mg/day. In athletes the dose triples to 5 – 10 mg/day.

Vitamin B2 – according to WHO: 1 – 3 mg/day. In athletes: 5 – 10 mg/day.

Vitamin B6 – according to WHO: 2 – 3 mg/day. In athletes: 10 – 20 mg/day.

Vitamin PP (niacin) – according to WHO: 18 – 20 mg/day. In athletes – up to 60 mg/day.

Vitamin B12 – an extremely important vitamin. Here we have the most pronounced difference. According to WHO – 1 μg (0.001 mg). Athletes can take 2000 – 5000 μg (gamma) or 2 – 5 mg/day.

Vitamin B15 (pangamic acid) – a vitamin-like substance with a broad spectrum of action: it increases oxygen utilization rate, increases hypoxia resistance of cells and tissues, promotes glycogen storage in the liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, raises creatine phosphate levels. According to WHO – 2 mg/day. In athletes, additional intake in the range of 100 – 300 mg/day is recommended.

Folic acid – another vitamin that is important for us. According to WHO – 200 mcg, in athletes: 1 – 2 mg/day.

Vitamin E – fat-soluble. It activates spermatogenesis, facilitates fertilization and helps sustain the pregnancy to term. One of the most powerful antioxidants. It protects the striated musculature (the muscles) from degenerative changes. Extremely important for strength athletes. A deficiency of vitamin E (hypovitaminosis) leads to a sharp decrease in the synthesis of myosin, creatine, and glycogen in the muscles. Daily dosage (RDA) according to WHO – 10 mg/day. In athletes: 100 – 200 mg/day.

Synthetic forms of vitamins A and D should not be taken in large doses due to the risk of toxicity.

Intake of minerals – sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron – is doubled in athletes as a rule.

Sodium (Na) – the main supplier for the body is common salt (NaCl). Normally the human body needs 4 – 6 g of sodium (sodium cation) a day, which corresponds to 10 – 15 g of common salt (1 g of NaCl contains 0.4 g Na+). In case of intense thermal stress (profuse sweating) and training for more than 2 – 3 hours/day (two-a-day/three-a-day training pattern), especially in the summer, the intake can be increased to 25 – 30 g of common salt. Still, sodium should not be abused due to the risk of hypertension (increased blood pressure) and disrupted kidney function. Higher doses of sodium also require higher amounts of potassium in order to maintain the sodium-potassium balance and vice versa.

Potassium (K) – potassium anion. Found mainly in the intracellular space. It antagonizes but is in dynamic balance with, sodium and calcium. The highest concentrations are found in the muscles and liver cells. Potassium plays an important role in muscle contraction and more specifically in the contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium). When its blood level drops (hypokalemia), the contractile function of the myocardium suffers. Potassium acts as a diuretic. It is very important for athletic performance. The daily need for potassium for non-athletes is 2 – 3 g, and in athletes – 5 g/day.

Calcium (Ca) – a mineral that is extremely important for athletes. Here are some things you may not know about it. Calcium enhances internal inhibition in the cerebral cortex, it increases the alkalinity of the internal medium (in case of acidification of the tissue fluids, which I discussed earlier, by lactic and other acids, calcium acts as an antagonist), forms part of the structure of cell membranes, enhances muscle contractions, normalizes heart muscle function. It acts as a coagulant and an anti-inflammatory agent. It improves mental and physical performance. Calcium salts help increase muscle strength and overall endurance.

Calcium and calcium salts are found in a lot of foods (beans, lentils, soy, peaches, oats, walnuts, etc.) of plant and animal (milk and dairy products, eggs, caviar, etc.) origin. The best sources of calcium are calcium casein (protein) in dairy products with 1400 mg/100 g, whey proteins with 360 – 560 mg/100 g and cheese with 530 mg/100 g. Calcium metabolism is vitamin D-dependent. The daily need for calcium in non-athletes is listed as 800 – 1200 mg/day, while in athletes it can be as high as 1600 – 2500 mg/day. Being in dynamic balance, its absorption depends on maintaining an optimal ratio of phosphorus: calcium = 1:1 through food (this optimal ratio between calcium and phosphorus is found in milk, dairy products, and whey protein). Doses exceeding 2500 mg/day of calcium are not recommended.

Phosphorus (P) – here I will only add a couple of lines. Phosphorus regulates biochemical processes in the nervous system and the neuromuscular apparatus. It forms part of biologically active organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds (phosphates, nucleoproteins, phospholipids, etc.). These compounds increase intracellular metabolism and intensify energy processes. Phosphorus is typical food for athletes, especially in sports which imply a lot of nervous tension. The daily need for phosphorus salts is 1300 mg for non-athletes and 2000 – 3500 mg for athletes.

Magnesium (Mg) – has a similar effect to calcium. It forms part of many enzyme systems. It has a vasodilatory and calming effect. It lowers cholesterol levels and facilitates lipid metabolism. The daily need for magnesium according to WHO is 300 mg/day and 400 mg/day according to the RDI in the USA (recommended daily intake) for non-athletes. In athletes, the need for magnesium is 500 – 1000 mg/day.

Iron (Fe) – iron is very important for oxygen transport and for oxygen utilization in tissues, mainly forming part of the structure of hemoglobin and various cell ferments. I.e. athletes who engage in aerobic activities will find it beneficial. The daily need in non-athletes is 10 – 15 mg/day, in athletes – 20 – 30 mg/day.

A few more points on vitamins and minerals:

Don’t forget that, given the increased amount of protein, carbohydrates, and fat that you will be getting in the process of building muscle mass, you will need considerably more B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, H /biotin/ and folic acid). They are closely related to metabolism and most of them act as catalyzers in a large number of biochemical reactions and form part of enzymes.

If you are smokers, you should know that each cigarette you smoke destroys 25 – 100 mg of vitamin C. You need considerably larger amounts (than the WHO RDA) of the antioxidants A, C, E, and selenium in order to deal with free radicals at least to some extent:

Vitamin C: 1000 – 2000 mg/day;

Vitamin E: 200 – 300 mg/day;

Selenium: 200 mcg/day.

If you consume alcohol, you need more B vitamins, 1000 mg/day of calcium and 500 mg/day of magnesium;

If you consume large amounts of coffee, you should keep in mind that caffeine strips the body of B vitamins, especially inositol, as well as vitamin C, zinc, potassium, and other minerals. So you will need more of those.

Enough about vitamins and minerals.

Without an adequate diet all this training will be in vain. I am not going to discuss eating plans, food tables, etc. here. That will be for you to decide. I am going to present a couple of formulas that have worked for me, have proved to be effective in sports medicine textbooks too and have worked for other athletes I have trained.

Determining Your Daily Energy Intake (DEI), Also Referred to as Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

DEI in athletes is normally based on their usual level of activity and their body mass. The reference range is presented in kcal/kg of body weight. An effective formula that has worked for me for many years is presented below:

kg/body weight x 33 (coefficient) + 60 minutes of training activity + 500 – 700 kcal, required for overcompensation (muscle mass gains).

Example: 100 kg of body weight x 33 = 3300 kcal

60 min. training – 800 kcal

4100 kcal

We have 4100 kcal at 100 kg of body weight and 1 hour of strength training which will be sufficient for us to maintain our weight. In order to supply macronutrients and kilocalories to build muscle mass, we need to add 500 – 700 kcal to the 4100 kcal above:

4100 kcal + 500 kcal, required for muscle mass gains

The result is 4600 kcal. How should these be distributed? In percentages: 60% carbohydrates, 20 – 25% protein and 15 – 20% fat. An important note: these kcal and macronutrient percentage values apply to an athlete with fast metabolism.

How many grams of fat, carbohydrates and protein would it take to achieve these percentages?

We know carbohydrates and protein supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, while fat supplies 9 kcal per gram. Keeping that in mind, we arrive at the following numbers for 4700 kcal:

60% carbohydrates = 2760 kcal: 4 kcal/gram = 690 grams of carbohydrates

20 – 25% protein = 920 – 1150 kcal: 4 kcal/gram = 230 – 288 grams

15 – 20% fat = 690 – 920 kcal: 9 kcal/gram = 77 – 102 grams.

There are three types of metabolism, broadly speaking:

fast;

normal;

The coefficient I am using in this case, namely 33, can vary for different types of metabolism. Here I have used it as an example for fast metabolism. For normal metabolism, the coefficient will be lower, for example 28, respectively 23 for slow metabolism.

How fast your metabolism is depends on: gender, level of physical activity, age, diet, meal frequency, hormonal profile, etc.

Another example – with normal metabolism:

90 kg of body weight x 28 (coefficient) = 2520

+ 60 min. training: approximately 500 kcal

+ 500 kcal for overcompensation

We get: 2520 + 500 + 500 = 3520 kcal

3520 is what is required for an athlete with normal metabolism and 90 kg body weight  in order to gain muscle mass, provided that he trains 1 hour a day and does not engage in any further physical activity.

Macronutrient percentages also vary in different types of metabolism, namely:

50 – 55% carbohydrates: 20 – 25% protein: 20% fat for normal metabolism

50% carbohydrates: 25 – 30% protein: 20 – 25% fat for slow metabolism

The energy expenditure value for training is taken from sports medicine textbooks for the respective sport, in this case bodybuilding.

1 hour of training: 500 – 1000 kcal depending on your body weight

Energy expenditure in athletic activities depends on the type of sport and is determined by a coefficient that consists of kcal/kg/h. It is lowest in table tennis – 4.1 kcal/kg/h and baseball – 4.5 kcal/kg/h, and highest in cross-country skiing and rowing – 10.6 kcal/kg/h.

Bodybuilding has a coefficient of 6 – 7.6 kcal/kg/h depending on the intensity of the workout.

Macronutrients

Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates

55 – 65% of your protein intake should come from animal sources and the rest – from plant sources.

Fat should be distributed, as follows: 50% animal fats, 50% vegetable fats, with 10 – 20% of the latter coming from unsaturated fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid, also known as vitamin F and found mainly in nuts and their analogous butters. Omega 3 – 6 – 9 fatty acids, which are found in fish (predominantly saltwater fish), are another excellent source of fat.

Carbohydrates should be distributed, as follows: 65 – 70% polysaccharides, 25 – 30% mono- and disaccharides and about 5% indigestible carbohydrates (cellulose, pectin).

Micronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals

When it comes to athletes (and not only), the recommended dietary allowance – RDA, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is actually a ridiculous and absolutely insufficient part of the amounts of vitamins and minerals that a highly advanced athlete should be getting. In fact, these dosages also represent the minimal amount for a normal person and not the optimal intake.

I am going to discuss the various intakes of micronutrients in athletes according to the sports medicine textbooks:

Vitamin C: recommended by WHO in a dosage of 60 mg/day, in athletes the daily needs are 5 – 9 times higher, i.e. 300 – 500 mg/day and as high as 1000 – 1500 mg/day in case of very high-intensity training. Doses above 2 g/day are not recommended.

Vitamin B1 – according to WHO: 1.5 – 2.5 mg/day. In athletes the dose triples to 5 – 10 mg/day.

Vitamin B2 – according to WHO: 1 – 3 mg/day. In athletes: 5 – 10 mg/day.

Vitamin B6 – according to WHO: 2 – 3 mg/day. In athletes: 10 – 20 mg/day.

Vitamin PP (niacin) – according to WHO: 18 – 20 mg/day. In athletes – up to 60 mg/day.

Vitamin B12 – an extremely important vitamin. Here we have the most pronounced difference. According to WHO – 1 μg (0.001 mg). Athletes can take 2000 – 5000 μg (gamma) or 2 – 5 mg/day.

Vitamin B15 (pangamic acid) – a vitamin-like substance with a broad spectrum of action: it increases oxygen utilization rate, increases hypoxia resistance of cells and tissues, promotes glycogen storage in the liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, raises creatine phosphate levels. According to WHO – 2 mg/day. In athletes, additional intake in the range of 100 – 300 mg/day is recommended.

Folic acid – another vitamin that is important for us. According to WHO – 200 mcg, in athletes: 1 – 2 mg/day.

Vitamin E – fat-soluble. It activates spermatogenesis, facilitates fertilization and helps sustain the pregnancy to term. One of the most powerful antioxidants. It protects the striated musculature (the muscles) from degenerative changes. Extremely important for strength athletes. A deficiency of vitamin E (hypovitaminosis) leads to a sharp decrease in the synthesis of myosin, creatine, and glycogen in the muscles. Daily dosage (RDA) according to WHO – 10 mg/day. In athletes: 100 – 200 mg/day.

Synthetic forms of vitamins A and D should not be taken in large doses due to the risk of toxicity.

Intake of minerals – sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron – is doubled in athletes as a rule.

Sodium (Na) – the main supplier for the body is common salt (NaCl). Normally the human body needs 4 – 6 g of sodium (sodium cation) a day, which corresponds to 10 – 15 g of common salt (1 g of NaCl contains 0.4 g Na+). In case of intense thermal stress (profuse sweating) and training for more than 2 – 3 hours/day (two-a-day/three-a-day training pattern), especially in the summer, the intake can be increased to 25 – 30 g of common salt. Still, sodium should not be abused due to the risk of hypertension (increased blood pressure) and disrupted kidney function. Higher doses of sodium also require higher amounts of potassium in order to maintain the sodium-potassium balance and vice versa.

Potassium (K) – potassium anion. Found mainly in the intracellular space. It antagonizes but is in dynamic balance with, sodium and calcium. The highest concentrations are found in the muscles and liver cells. Potassium plays an important role in muscle contraction and more specifically in the contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium). When its blood level drops (hypokalemia), the contractile function of the myocardium suffers. Potassium acts as a diuretic. It is very important for athletic performance. The daily need for potassium for non-athletes is 2 – 3 g, and in athletes – 5 g/day.

Calcium (Ca) – a mineral that is extremely important for athletes. Here are some things you may not know about it. Calcium enhances internal inhibition in the cerebral cortex, it increases the alkalinity of the internal medium (in case of acidification of the tissue fluids, which I discussed earlier, by lactic and other acids, calcium acts as an antagonist), forms part of the structure of cell membranes, enhances muscle contractions, normalizes heart muscle function. It acts as a coagulant and an anti-inflammatory agent. It improves mental and physical performance. Calcium salts help increase muscle strength and overall endurance.

Calcium and calcium salts are found in a lot of foods (beans, lentils, soy, peaches, oats, walnuts, etc.) of plant and animal (milk and dairy products, eggs, caviar, etc.) origin. The best sources of calcium are calcium casein (protein) in dairy products with 1400 mg/100 g, whey proteins with 360 – 560 mg/100 g and cheese with 530 mg/100 g. Calcium metabolism is vitamin D-dependent. The daily need for calcium in non-athletes is listed as 800 – 1200 mg/day, while in athletes it can be as high as 1600 – 2500 mg/day. Being in dynamic balance, its absorption depends on maintaining an optimal ratio of phosphorus: calcium = 1:1 through food (this optimal ratio between calcium and phosphorus is found in milk, dairy products, and whey protein). Doses exceeding 2500 mg/day of calcium are not recommended.

Phosphorus (P) – here I will only add a couple of lines. Phosphorus regulates biochemical processes in the nervous system and the neuromuscular apparatus. It forms part of biologically active organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds (phosphates, nucleoproteins, phospholipids, etc.). These compounds increase intracellular metabolism and intensify energy processes. Phosphorus is typical food for athletes, especially in sports which imply a lot of nervous tension. The daily need for phosphorus salts is 1300 mg for non-athletes and 2000 – 3500 mg for athletes.

Magnesium (Mg) – has a similar effect to calcium. It forms part of many enzyme systems. It has a vasodilatory and calming effect. It lowers cholesterol levels and facilitates lipid metabolism. The daily need for magnesium according to WHO is 300 mg/day and 400 mg/day according to the RDI in the USA (recommended daily intake) for non-athletes. In athletes, the need for magnesium is 500 – 1000 mg/day.

Iron (Fe) – iron is very important for oxygen transport and for oxygen utilization in tissues, mainly forming part of the structure of hemoglobin and various cell ferments. I.e. athletes who engage in aerobic activities will find it beneficial. The daily need in non-athletes is 10 – 15 mg/day, in athletes – 20 – 30 mg/day.

A few more points on vitamins and minerals:

Don’t forget that, given the increased amount of protein, carbohydrates, and fat that you will be getting in the process of building muscle mass, you will need considerably more B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, H /biotin/ and folic acid). They are closely related to metabolism and most of them act as catalyzers in a large number of biochemical reactions and form part of enzymes.

If you are smokers, you should know that each cigarette you smoke destroys 25 – 100 mg of vitamin C. You need considerably larger amounts (than the WHO RDA) of the antioxidants A, C, E, and selenium in order to deal with free radicals at least to some extent:

Vitamin C: 1000 – 2000 mg/day;

Vitamin E: 200 – 300 mg/day;

Selenium: 200 mcg/day.

If you consume alcohol, you need more B vitamins, 1000 mg/day of calcium and 500 mg/day of magnesium;

If you consume large amounts of coffee, you should keep in mind that caffeine strips the body of B vitamins, especially inositol, as well as vitamin C, zinc, potassium and other minerals. So you will need more of those.

Enough about vitamins and minerals.

Factor No.7- Time Between Two Consecutive Workouts for the Same Muscle Group

The life of mRNA and rRNA, which has already been discussed, is from 2 to 6 days, depending on the workout intensity. When mRNA and rRNA levels are high, then the next workout for the same muscle group should be scheduled in such a way, as to leave enough time between workouts for the same muscle group in order to optimize the recovery and overcompensation (muscle mass increase) process.
You probably didn’t understand a thing so far. Let me give you an example. You are an advanced bodybuilder. You train your pectoral muscles on Monday with a high-intensity workout. Pectoral muscles are large muscle groups, the exertion is significant and you will need more days for recovery and overcompensation. The maximum mRNA and rRNA levels are increased for 5 – 6 days after a workout of this kind (the period depends on the muscle volume and your strength – it is longer, the more muscle mass and muscle strength you have). You will have to do your next pectoral workout on Saturday or at the latest on Sunday.
If you do your workout earlier, say, on Thursday, you will suppress the optimal recovery of the pectoral muscles and interrupt the process of building muscle mass, although mRNA and rRNA levels are high.
If you keep training two days apart (Monday, Thursday, Sunday, etc.), doing high-intensity workouts, the impeded recovery will lead to overtraining. There will be no muscle mass growth and your strength will decrease. Your other option: if you do your next workout in 8 days’ time, after the sixth day mRNA and rRNA levels gradually decrease and on the eighth day they will be slightly higher than their starting values. You will achieve very little progress in your next workout.
In this case, keeping your workouts 5 – 6 days apart will allow you to achieve maximum progress in building muscle mass, but you must do all your subsequent workouts at high rRNA and mRNA levels. An important point: this example applies to an advanced or rather highly-advanced bodybuilder. For a beginner or intermediate bodybuilders, the time between workouts is different and depends on the nature of the workout (intensity), the muscle volume and the strength parameters (maximum strength).